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Nintendo Co., Ltd. (任天堂株式会社 Nintendō Kabushiki gaisha?) (TYO: 7974) is a Japanese multinational consumer electronics company headquartered in Kyoto, Japan. Nintendo is the world's largest video game company by revenue.[6] Founded on September 23, 1889[2] by Fusajiro Yamauchi, it originally produced handmade hanafuda cards.[7] By 1963, the company had tried several small niche businesses, such as a cab company and a love hotel.[8]

Abandoning previous ventures, Nintendo developed into a video game company, becoming one of the most influential in the industry and Japan's third most valuable listed company with a market value of over US$85 billion.[9] Nintendo of America is also the majority owner of the Seattle Mariners Major League Baseball team.[10]

The name Nintendo can be roughly translated from Japanese to English as "leave luck to heaven".[11] As of September 30, 2012, Nintendo has sold over 637.7 million hardware units and 4.01 billion software units.[12]

ContentsEdit

[hide] *1 History

    • 1.1 As a card company (1889–1956)
    • 1.2 New ventures (1956–1974)
    • 1.3 Electronic era (since 1974)
  • 2 Organization
    • 2.1 Marketing
    • 2.2 Key executives
    • 2.3 Divisions
  • 3 Software development studios
    • 3.1 First-party studios
    • 3.2 Overseas Research and Development
    • 3.3 Affiliated studios
    • 3.4 Former affiliates
  • 4 Policy
    • 4.1 Emulation
    • 4.2 Content guidelines
    • 4.3 License guidelines
    • 4.4 Seal of Quality
      • 4.4.1 NTSC regions
      • 4.4.2 PAL regions
    • 4.5 Environmental record
  • 5 Gaming systems
    • 5.1 Home consoles
    • 5.2 Portable consoles
  • 6 See also
  • 7 Notes
  • 8 References
  • 9 Further reading
  • 10 External links

[edit] HistoryEdit

Main article: History of NintendoFormer headquarters plate, from when Nintendo was solely a playing card company===[edit] As a card company (1889–1956)=== Nintendo was founded as a card company in late 1889, originally named Nintendo Koppai. Based in Kyoto, Japan, the business produced and marketed a playing card game called Hanafuda. The handmade cards soon became popular, and Yamauchi hired assistants to mass produce cards to satisfy demand. Nintendo continues to manufacture playing cards in Japan[13] and organizes its own contract bridge tournament called the "Nintendo Cup".[14]

[edit] New ventures (1956–1974)Edit

In 1956, Hiroshi Yamauchi (grandson of Fusajiro Yamauchi) visited the U.S. to talk with the United States Playing Card Company, the dominant playing card manufacturer there. He found that the world's biggest company in his business was only using a small office. This was a turning point when Yamauchi realized the limitations of the playing card business. He then gained access to Disney's characters and put them on the playing cards to drive sales. The Nintendo Love TesterIn 1963, Yamauchi renamed Nintendo Playing Card Co. Ltd. to Nintendo Co., Ltd.[15] The company then began to experiment in other areas of business using newly injected capital. During this period of time between 1963 and 1968, Nintendo set up a taxi company, a love hotel chain, a TV network, a food company (selling instant rice, similar to instant noodles) and several other things.[citation needed] All of these ventures eventually failed, and after the 1964 Tokyo Olympics, playing card sales dropped, and Nintendo's stock price plummeted to ¥60.

In 1966, Nintendo moved into the Japanese toy industry with the Ultra Hand, an extendable arm developed by its maintenance engineer Gunpei Yokoi in his free time. Yokoi was moved from maintenance to the new "Nintendo Games" department as a product developer. Nintendo continued to produce popular toys, including the Ultra Machine, Love Tester and the Kousenjuu series of light gun games. Despite some successful products, Nintendo struggled to meet the fast development and manufacturing turnaround required in the toy market, and fell behind the well-established companies such as Bandai and Tomy.

In 1973, its focus shifted to family entertainment venues with the Laser Clay Shooting System, using the same light gun technology used in Nintendo's Kousenjuu series of toys, and set up in abandoned bowling alleys. Following some success, Nintendo developed several more light gun machines (such as the light gun shooter game Wild Gunman) for the emerging arcade scene. While the Laser Clay Shooting System ranges had to be shut down following excessive costs, Nintendo had found a new market.

[edit] Electronic era (since 1974)Edit

The Nintendo Entertainment System (NES)Nintendo's first venture into the video gaming industry was securing rights to distribute the Magnavox Odyssey video game console in Japan in 1974. Nintendo began to produce its own hardware in 1977, with the Color TV Game home video game consoles. Four versions of these consoles were produced, each including variations of a single game (for example, Color TV Game 6 featured six versions of Light Tennis).

A student product developer named Shigeru Miyamoto was hired by Nintendo at this time.[16] He worked for Yokoi, and one of his first tasks was to design the casing for several of the Color TV Game consoles. Miyamoto went on to create, direct and produce some of Nintendo's most famous video games and become one of the most recognizable figures in the video game industry.[16]

In 1975, Nintendo moved into the video arcade game industry with EVR Race, designed by their first game designer, Genyo Takeda,[17] and several more titles followed. Nintendo had some small success with this venture, but the release of Donkey Kong in 1981, designed by Miyamoto, changed Nintendo's fortunes dramatically. The success of the game and many licensing opportunities (such as ports on the Atari 2600, Intellivision and ColecoVision) gave Nintendo a huge boost in profit. This game also marked the debut of Mario, the company's official mascot.

In 1980, Nintendo launched Game & Watch—a handheld video game series developed by Yokoi where each game was played on a separate device—to worldwide success. In 1983, Nintendo launched the Family Computer (commonly shortened "Famicom"), known outside Japan as the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES), home video game console in Japan, alongside ports of its most popular arcade titles. In 1985, the NES launched in North America, and was accompanied by Super Mario Bros., one of the best-selling video games of all time.[18]

After the success of the Game & Watch, Yokoi developed the Game Boy handheld game console in 1989. The Game Boy, the best-selling handheld of all time, remained dominant for more than a decade. Incremental updates in the Game Boy Pocket, Game Boy Light and Game Boy Color over the next decade did little to change the original formula.

The Nintendo Entertainment System was superseded by the Super Famicom, known outside Japan as the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES). This was Nintendo's console of the 16-bit 4th generation, following the Famicom of the 8-bit 3rd generation, whose main rival was the Sega Mega Drive/Genesis. A console war between Sega and Nintendo ensued.[19] Although relatively late to market, the SNES considerably outsold the Mega Drive/Genesis.

Aiming to produce an affordable virtual reality console, Gunpei Yokoi designed the Virtual Boy, a table-mounted semi-portable console featuring stereoscopic graphics. Users view games through a binocular eyepiece and control games using a gamepad. Critics were generally disappointed with the quality of the games and graphics, and complained of gameplay-induced headaches.[20] The system sold poorly and was quietly discontinued.[21] Amid the system's failure, Yokoi retired from Nintendo.[22]

Its market share slipping to Sega and new rival Sony, Nintendo utilized a $185 million marketing campaign, centered around the "Play It Loud" slogan, to revitalize its brand.[23] The company's next home console, the Nintendo 64, was released in 1996 and features 3D graphics capabilities and built-in multiplayer for up to four players. The system's controller introduced the analog stick. Nintendo later introduced the Rumble Pak, an accessory for the Nintendo 64 controller that produced force feedback with compatible games. It was the first such device to come to market for home console gaming and eventually became an industry standard.[24]

The Nintendo GameCube followed in 2001 and was the first Nintendo console to utilize optical disc storage instead of cartridges.[25] The console was profitable, but sales paled in comparison with the rival PlayStation 2. The Nintendo 3DS, Nintendo's latest handheld video game system which features autostereoscopic 3D.A major update to its handheld line, Game Boy Advance, featuring improved technical specifications similar to those of the SNES. A first update improved lighting, while a later iteration brought a smaller form factor. Although originally advertised as an alternative to the Game Boy Advance, the Nintendo DS replaced the Game Boy line sometime after its initial release in 2004.[26] It was distinctive for its dual screens and a microphone, as well as a touch-sensitive lower screen. The Nintendo DS Lite brought a smaller form factor.[27] The Nintendo DSi featured larger screens and two cameras,[28] and was followed by a larger version the DSi XL with a 90% bigger screen than the Nintendo DS.[29]

The successor to the Nintendo DS line, the Nintendo 3DS, uses the process of autostereoscopy to produce a stereoscopic three-dimensional effect without glasses.[30] The console got off to a slow start, initially missing many key features that were promised before the system launched.[31] Partially as a result of slow sales, Nintendo stock declined in value. Subsequent price cuts and game releases renewed investor confidence in the company.[32] The Nintendo 3DS XL is the larger version of the 3DS with the screen size being 90% larger than the regular version.

Another home console in Nintendo's lineup, the Wii, uses motion sensing controllers[33] and has on-board online functionality used for services such as Nintendo Wi-Fi Connection and Internet Channel[34] (in contrast to GameCube's limited functionality on select games with an additional modem accessory[35]). Its successor, the Wii U, features a touch screen controller and comes in two editions, Basic and Deluxe.[36]

[edit] OrganizationEdit

[edit] MarketingEdit

Main article: Nintendo marketingNintendo of America has engaged in several high-profile marketing campaigns to define and position its brand. One of its earliest and most enduring slogans was "Now you're playing with power!", used first to promote its Nintendo Entertainment System. It modified the slogan to include "SUPER power" for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System, and "PORTABLE power" for the Game Boy. Its 1994 "Play It Loud!" campaign played upon teenage rebellion and fostered an edgy reputation. During the GameCube era, the "Who Are You?" suggested a link between the games we play and the people we are. The company promoted its Nintendo DS handheld with the tagline "Touching is Good." For the Wii, they used the "Wii would like to play." slogan to promote the console with the people who tried the games including Super Mario Galaxy and Super Smash Bros. Brawl. Its successor, the Wii U, uses the slogan "This is how you will play next." (with the word "you" stylized as the letter U).

[edit] Key executivesEdit

Nintendo's president since 2002, Satoru Iwata.*Satoru Iwata, President and Representative Director

  • Yoshihiro Mori, Senior Managing Director, General Manager of Corporate Analysis & Administration Division, and Representative Director
  • Shinji Hatano, Senior Managing Director, General Manager of Licensing Division, and Representative Director
  • Masaharu Matsumoto, Managing Director
  • Shigeru Miyamoto, Senior Managing Director and Representative Director[37]
  • Reggie Fils-Aime, President and chief operating officer of Nintendo of America
  • Satoru Shibata, President of Nintendo of Europe

[edit] DivisionsEdit

Nintendo Co., Ltd. oversees the company's global operations and manages Japanese operations specifically. The company's two major subsidiaries, Nintendo of America and Nintendo of Europe, manage operations in North America and Europe respectively. Nintendo Co., Ltd. (NCL)[38] was originally based in Kyoto.[a] It then moved to a new office in Higashiyama-ku, Kyoto, which is now its research and development building.[b] Since 2000, the company has been based in Minami-ku, Kyoto.[c][39]

Nintendo of America, Incorporated (NOA), its U.S. division, is based in Redmond, Washington. Originally the NOA headquarters handled sales, marketing, and advertising. However, the office in Redwood City, California now directs those functions. The company maintains distribution centers in Atlanta, Georgia (Nintendo Atlanta) and North Bend, Washington (Nintendo North Bend). The 380,000-square-foot (35,000 m2) Nintendo North Bend facility processes more than 20,000 orders a day to Nintendo customers, which include retail stores that sell Nintendo products and consumers who order their video games and associated components online.[40] Nintendo of America's Canadian branch,[41] Nintendo of Canada, Ltd. (NOCL), is based in Vancouver, BC, with its distribution center in Toronto, Ontario.

Nintendo of Europe (NOE) was established in June 1990.[42] The company handles operations in Europe and South Africa.[42] The subsidiary is based in Großostheim,[43] close to Frankfurt, Germany. Nintendo of Europe's United Kingdom branch[44] handles operations in that country and in Ireland from its headquarters in Windsor, Berkshire.

Nintendo Australia Pty Ltd (NAL) is based in Melbourne, Victoria. It handles the publishing, distribution, sales and marketing of Nintendo products in Australia, New Zealand, and Oceania (Cook Islands, Fiji, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, and Vanuatu). It also manufactures some Wii games locally. Nintendo Australia is also a third-party distributor of some titles from Rising Star Games, Namco Bandai Games Europe, Atlus, The Tetris Company, Sega, Tecmo Koei Games Europe and Capcom Europe.

iQue, Ltd., a Chinese joint venture between its founder, Wei Yen, and Nintendo, manufactures and distributes official Nintendo consoles and games for the mainland Chinese market, under the iQue brand. The product lineup for the Chinese market is considerably different from that for other markets. For example, Nintendo's only console in China is the iQue Player, a modified version of the Nintendo 64. The company has not released its more modern GameCube or Wii to the market.

Nintendo established Nintendo of Korea (NoK) on July 7, 2006.[45]

  • The exterior of Nintendo's main headquarters in Kyoto, Japan
  • The Nintendo of America headquarters in Redmond, United States
  • Nintendo of Europe headquarters in Großostheim, Germany


[edit] Software development studiosEdit

[edit] First-party studiosEdit

  • Brownie Brown – Mother 3, A Kappa's Trail, Magical Vacation series
  • HAL Laboratory – Kirby series, EarthBound series, Super Smash Bros. series
  • Intelligent Systems – Paper Mario series with Nintendo, Fire Emblem series, Advance Wars series,[46] WarioWare series, Pushmo series
  • Monolith Soft – Disaster: Day of Crisis, Xenoblade Chronicles[47]
  • Nd Cube – Wii Party, Mario Party 9
  • Nintendo EAD Comprehensive Group – Super Mario 64 DS
  • Nintendo EAD Group 1 – Mario Kart series, Nintendogs series, Luigi's Mansion[48]
  • Nintendo EAD Group 2 – Animal Crossing series, Wii-branded games
  • Nintendo EAD Group 3 – The Legend of Zelda series
  • Nintendo EAD Group 4 – Pikmin series, New Super Mario Bros. series, Big Brain Academy
  • Nintendo EAD Group 5 – Wii Fit, Steel Diver (with Vitei)
  • Nintendo EAD Tokyo 1 – Donkey Kong Jungle Beat, Super Mario Galaxy
  • Nintendo EAD Tokyo 2 – Flipnote Studio, Super Mario Galaxy 2, Super Mario 3D Land
  • Nintendo SPD – WarioWare series, Tomodachi Collection, Rhythm Heaven series, Fossil Fighters series (with Red Entertainment, M2, and Artdink)
  • Nintendo NSD – Personal Trainer: Walking
  • Nintendo SDD – Brain Age series
  • Nintendo STC – Mario vs. Donkey Kong, Crosswords DS, Metroid Prime Hunters[49]
  • Retro Studios – Metroid Prime series, Donkey Kong Country Returns,[50] Mario Kart 7

[edit] Overseas Research and DevelopmentEdit

Although most of the research and development is being done in Japan, there are some R&D facilities in the US and Europe that are focused on developing software and hardware technologies used in Nintendo products. Although they all are subsidiaries of Nintendo (and therefore 'first party'), they are often referred to as external resources when being involved in joint development processes with Nintendo's 'internal' developers by the Japanese people involved. This can be seen in a variety of "Iwata asks..." interviews.[51]

  • Nintendo Technology Development, Redmond, Washington, USA
  • Nintendo STC, has developed games and software technology[52]
  • Nintendo European Research and Development SAS France (NERD), at the moment focused on video technology[53]
  • Mobiclip

[edit] Affiliated studiosEdit

Since the 1980s, Nintendo has built up a large group of development partners, through publishing agreements or collaboration.

  • AlphaDream – Mario & Luigi series
  • Ambrella – Pokémon Dash, Pokémon Rumble series, Pokémon Channel, My Pokémon Ranch,[54] Hey You, Pikachu!
  • Arika – Endless Ocean series, 3D Classics series
  • Artoon - Yoshi's Island DS, Yoshi Topsy-Turvy
  • Asobism Co., Ltd. - Freakyforms: Your Creations, Alive!, Freakyforms Deluxe: Your Creations, Alive!
  • Creatures Inc. – Pokémon Ranger series, PokéPark series, EarthBound (Mother) series (with HAL Laboratory and Brownie Brown)
  • Capcom – The Legend of Zelda: Oracle of Seasons and Oracle of Ages and The Legend of Zelda: The Minish Cap
  • Camelot Software Planning – Golden Sun series, Mario Tennis series, Mario Golf series
  • Curve Studios - Fluidity
  • Eighting - Kuru Kuru Kururin series, Master of Illusion
  • Ganbarion - Pandora's Tower
  • Game Freak - Pokémon series, Drill Dozer, Mario & Wario
  • Genius Sonority – Pokémon Colosseum, Pokémon XD: Gale of Darkness, Pokémon Battle Revolution, Pokémon Trozei!
  • Good-Feel – Wario Land: Shake It!, Kirby's Epic Yarn (with HAL Laboratory)
  • Grezzo - The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time 3D, The Legend of Zelda: Four Swords Anniversary Edition
  • iNiS - Osu! Tatakae! Ouendan series, Elite Beat Agents
  • Jupiter - Mario's Picross series, Pokémon Pinball series, Picross DS, Picross E
  • Kuju Entertainment - Art Academy series, Battalion Wars series
  • Mistwalker - The Last Story
  • Monster Games – Excitebike series,[55] Pilotwings Resort
  • n-Space - Geist
  • Namco Bandai Games – Mario Baseball series
  • Next Level Games – Mario Strikers series, Punch-Out!!, Luigi's Mansion: Dark Moon
  • Noise – Custom Robo series[56]
  • Paon – Donkey Kong Barrel Blast, DK Jungle Climber, DK King of Swing, Glory of Heracles
  • Red Entertainment Corporation – Project Hacker, Fossil Fighters Series
  • Sandlot - Chōsōjū Mecha MG, Zangeki no Reginleiv
  • Sega - Mario & Sonic at the Olympic Games series
  • Skip Ltd. – Chibi-Robo! series, Art Style series, GiFTPiA, Captain Rainbow, Snowpack Park
  • Square Enix - Super Mario RPG: Legend of the Seven Stars (as Square), Fortune Street series, Mario Hoops 3-on-3, Mario Sports Mix (with SPD Group 4)
  • Suzak - Wario: Master of Disguise, F-Zero: Climax, F-Zero: GP Legend
  • syn Sophia – Style Savvy series
  • Tecmo Koei - Fatal Frame series, Pokémon Conquest, Metroid: Other M (with SPD Group 1), Ninja Gaiden 3: Razor's Edge (with Team Ninja)
  • Tose - The Legendary Starfy series, Game & Watch Gallery series, Super Princess Peach
  • Treasure Co., Ltd. – Wario World, Sin and Punishment Series
  • Vanpool – Dillon's Rolling Western, Tingle series, Paper Mario: Sticker Star (with Intelligent Systems)
  • Vitei - Steel Diver (with EAD Group 5), Rock N’ Roll Climber (with EAD Group 3)

[edit] Former affiliatesEdit

  • Cing – Hotel Dusk: Room 215, Another Code: Two Memories
    Filed for bankruptcy in 2010.
  • Factor 5 - Star Wars: Rogue Squadron series
    Closed in 2009.
  • Hudson Soft - Mario Party series
    Absorbed into Konami in 2012.
  • Left Field Productions – Kobe Bryant in NBA Courtside series
    Bought out Nintendo's stake in the company in 2002.[57]
  • Marigul Management
    Closed in 2003.
  • Project Sora – Super Smash Bros. Brawl, Kid Icarus: Uprising
    Closed in 2012[58]
  • Radical Entertainment - Mario's Time Machine, Mario is Missing!
    Stopped making games for Nintendo after the Mario Discovery series ended. Now a fully owned subsidiary of Activision Blizzard.
  • Rare - Donkey Kong Country series, GoldenEye 007, Star Fox Adventures, Diddy Kong Racing, Donkey Kong 64, Conker's Bad Fur Day, Banjo Kazooie, Diddy Kong Racing DS
    Sold to Microsoft Studios in 2002.[59]
  • Silicon Knights – Eternal Darkness: Sanity's Requiem
    Publishing contract with Nintendo ended in 2004.[60]
  • St.GIGA - Games for the Satellaview
    Stopped making games for Nintendo when the Satellaview was discontinued. Eventually, they went out of business.

[edit] PolicyEdit

[edit] EmulationEdit

|} Nintendo, particularly Nintendo of America, is known for a "no tolerance" stance for emulation of its video games and consoles, stating that it is the single largest threat to the intellectual rights of video game developers.[61] Nintendo claims that copyright-like rights in mask works protect its games from the exceptions that United States copyright law otherwise provides for personal backup copies. Nintendo uses the claim that emulators running on personal computers have no use other than to play pirated video games, though a use that doesn't involve intellectual property in this way is seen in the development and testing of independently produced "homebrew" software on Nintendo's platforms. It is also claimed that Nintendo's claims contradict copyright laws, mainly that ROM image copiers are illegal (they are legal if used to dump unprotected ROM images on to a user's computer for personal use, per 17 U.S.C. § 117(a)(1) and foreign counterparts)[62] and that emulators are illegal (if they do not use copyrighted BIOS, or use other methods to run the game, they are legal; see Console emulator for further information about the legality of emulators). However, Nintendo remains the only modern console manufacturer that has not sued an emulator manufacturer.[63] Emulators have been used by Nintendo and licensed third party companies as a means to re-release older games (e.g. Virtual Console).

[edit] Content guidelinesEdit

For many years, Nintendo had a policy of strict content guidelines for video games published on its consoles. Although Nintendo of Japan allowed graphic violence in its video games, nudity and sexuality were strictly prohibited. Former Nintendo president Hiroshi Yamauchi believed that if the company allowed the licensing of pornographic games, the company's image would be forever tarnished.[64] Nintendo of America and Nintendo of Europe went further in that games released for Nintendo consoles could not feature nudity, sexuality, profanity (including racism, sexism or slurs), blood, graphic or domestic violence, drugs, political messages or religious symbols (with the exception of widely unpracticed religions, such as the Greek Pantheon).[65] The Japanese parent company was concerned that it may be viewed as a "Japanese Invasion" by forcing Japanese community standards on North American and European children. Despite the strict guidelines, some exceptions have occurred: Bionic Commando (though swastikas were eliminated in the US version), Smash TV and Golgo 13: Top Secret Episode contained human violence, the latter also containing implied sexuality and tobacco use; River City Ransom and Taboo: The Sixth Sense contained nudity, and the latter also contained religious images, as did Castlevania II and III.

A known side effect of this policy was the Sega Genesis version of Mortal Kombat selling over double the number of the Super NES version, mainly because Nintendo had forced publisher Acclaim to recolor the red blood to look like white sweat and replace some of the more gory graphics in its release of the game, making it non-violent.[66] By contrast, Sega allowed blood and gore to remain in the Genesis version (though a code was required to unlock the gore). Nintendo allowed the Super NES version of Mortal Kombat II to ship uncensored the following year with a content warning on the packaging.[67]

In 1994 and 2003, when the ESRB and PEGI (respectively) video game ratings systems were introduced, Nintendo chose to abolish most of these policies in favor of consumers making their own choices about the content of the games they played. Today, changes to the content of games are done primarily by the game's developer or, occasionally, at the request of Nintendo. The only clear-set rule is that ESRB AO-rated games will not be licensed on Nintendo consoles in North America,[68] a practice which is also enforced by Sony and Microsoft, its two greatest competitors in the present market. Nintendo has since allowed several mature-content games to be published on its consoles, including: Perfect Dark, Conker's Bad Fur Day, Doom and Doom 64, BMX XXX, the Resident Evil series, killer7, Eternal Darkness: Sanity's Requiem, BloodRayne, Geist and Dementium: The Ward. Certain games have continued to be modified, however. For example, Konami was forced to remove all references to cigarettes in the 2000 Game Boy Color game Metal Gear Solid (although the previous NES version of Metal Gear and the subsequent GameCube game Metal Gear Solid: The Twin Snakes both included such references, as did Wii title MadWorld), and maiming and blood were removed from the Nintendo 64 port of Cruis'n USA.[69] Another example is in the Game Boy Advance game Mega Man Zero 3, in which one of the bosses, called Hellbat Schilt in the Japanese and European releases, was renamed Devilbat Schilt in the North American localization. In North America releases of the Mega Man Zero games, enemies and bosses killed with a saber attack would not gush blood as they did in the Japanese versions. However, the release of the Wii has been accompanied by a number of even more controversial mature titles, such as Manhunt 2, No More Heroes, The House of the Dead: Overkill and MadWorld, the latter three of which are published exclusively for the console. The Nintendo DS also has violent games, such as Grand Theft Auto: Chinatown Wars, Dementium: The Ward, Ultimate Mortal Kombat 3 and Resident Evil: Deadly Silence.

[edit] License guidelinesEdit

Nintendo of America also had guidelines before 1993 that had to be followed by its licensees to make games for the Nintendo Entertainment System, in addition to the above content guidelines:.[64] Guidelines were enforced through the 10NES lockout chip.

  • Licensees were not permitted to release the same game for a competing console until two years had passed.
  • Nintendo would decide how many cartridges would be supplied to the licensee.
  • Nintendo would decide how much space would be dedicated for articles, advertising, etc. in the Nintendo Power magazine.
  • There was a minimum number of cartridges that had to be ordered by the licensee from Nintendo.
  • There was a yearly limit of five games that a licensee may produce for a Nintendo console.[70] This rule was created to prevent market over-saturation, which had contributed to the North American video game crash of 1983.

The last rule was circumvented in a number of ways; for example, Konami, wanting to produce more games for Nintendo's consoles, formed Ultra Games and later Palcom to produce more games as a technically different publisher.[64] This disadvantaged smaller or emerging companies, as they could not afford to start additional companies. In another side effect, Square Co. (now Square Enix) executives have suggested that the price of publishing games on the Nintendo 64 along with the degree of censorship and control that Nintendo enforced over its games, most notably Final Fantasy VI, were factors in switching its focus towards Sony's PlayStation console.[citation needed]

[edit] Seal of QualityEdit

Official Nintendo Seal in NTSC regionsNintendo's Official Seal of Quality in PAL regionsThe gold starburst seal was first used by Nintendo of America, and later Nintendo of Europe. It is displayed on any game, system, or accessory licensed for use on one of its video game consoles, denoting the game has been properly licensed by Nintendo. The seal is also displayed on any Nintendo-licensed merchandise, such as trading cards and apparel.[71]

[edit] NTSC regionsEdit

In NTSC regions, this seal is an elliptical starburst titled "Official Nintendo Seal". Originally, for NTSC countries, the seal was a large, black and gold circular starburst. The seal read as follows: "This seal is your assurance that NINTENDO has approved and guaranteed the quality of this product." This seal was later altered in 1988: "approved and guaranteed" was changed to "evaluated and approved". In 1989, the seal became gold and white, as it currently appears, with a shortened phrase, "Official Nintendo Seal of Quality". It was changed in 2003 to read "Official Nintendo Seal".[71]

The seal currently reads:[72] The official seal is your assurance that this product is licensed or manufactured by Nintendo. Always look for this seal when buying video game systems, accessories, games and related products.

[edit] PAL regionsEdit

In PAL regions, the seal is a circular starburst titled, "Original Nintendo Seal of Quality". Text near the seal in the Australian Wii manual states: This seal is your assurance that Nintendo has reviewed this product and that it has met our standards for excellence in workmanship, reliability and entertainment value. Always look for this seal when buying games and accessories to ensure complete compatibility with your Nintendo product.[73]

[edit] Environmental recordEdit

Nintendo has consistently been ranked last in Greenpeace's "Guide to Greener Electronics" due to Nintendo not revealing information.[74]

[edit] Gaming systemsEdit

Nintendo has produced a number of gaming systems, many with different iterations.

[edit] Home consolesEdit

Console Japan North America Europe Australia South Korea China Sales
Color TV Game 1977–80[d] Unreleased Unreleased Unreleased 1977–80[d] Unreleased 3 million (as of 1980)[75]
Nintendo Entertainment System July 15, 1983 October 18, 1985 September 1, 1986[e] July 1, 1983 October 18, 1985 Unreleased 61.91 million (as of 2012)[12]
Super Nintendo Entertainment System November 21, 1990 August 23, 1991[f] April 11, 1992 October 12, 1991 December 1, 1990 Unreleased 49.10 million (as of 2012)[12]
Virtual Boy July 21, 1995 August 14, 1995 Unreleased August 19, 1996 May 20, 1995 Unreleased 770,000 (as of 2012)
Nintendo 64 June 23, 1996 September 29, 1996 March 1, 1997 March 1, 1996 March 1, 1997 Unreleased 32.93 million (as of 2012)[12]
Nintendo GameCube September 14, 2001 November 18, 2001 May 3, 2002 June 19, 2002 June 1, 2001 Unreleased 21.74 million (as of 2012)[12]
iQue Player Unreleased Unreleased Unreleased Unreleased Unreleased 02003-11-07November 7, 2003 Unknown (as of 2012)
Wii December 2, 2006 November 19, 2006 December 8, 2006 December 7, 2006 April 26, 2008[76] Unknown 97.18 million (as of 2012)[12]
Wii U December 8, 2012[77] November 18, 2012 November 30, 2012 November 30, 2012[78] Unknown Unknown N/A

[edit] Portable consolesEdit

  • Game & Watch Line
    • Game & Watch Silver (1980)
    • Game & Watch Gold (1981)
    • Game & Watch Wide Screen (1981)
    • Game & Watch New Wide Screen (1982)
    • Game & Watch Multi Screen (1982)
    • Game & Watch Tabletop (1983)
    • Game & Watch Panorama (1983)
    • Game & Watch SuperColor (1984)
    • Game & Watch Micro Vs. System (1984)
    • Game & Watch Crystal Screen (1986)
    • Game & Watch Disk Kun (1987)
    • Game & Watch Mini Classics (1998)
  • Game Boy Line
    • Game Boy (1989)
    • Game Boy Pocket (1996)
    • Game Boy Light (1997)
  • Game Boy Color (1998)
  • Game Boy Advance line
    • Game Boy Advance (2001)
    • Game Boy Advance SP (2003)
    • Game Boy Micro (2005)
  • Nintendo DS Line
    • Nintendo DS (2004)
    • Nintendo DS Lite (2006)
    • Nintendo DSi (2009)
    • Nintendo DSi XL (2010)
  • Nintendo 3DS Line
    • Nintendo 3DS (2011)
    • Nintendo 3DS XL (2012)

[edit] See alsoEdit

Nintendo portal
Companies portal
  • Lewis Galoob Toys, Inc. v. Nintendo of America, Inc.
  • List of divisions of Nintendo
  • List of products published by Nintendo
  • Lists of Nintendo characters
  • Lists of Nintendo games
  • Nintendo development teams
  • Nintendo Selects formerly Player's Choice
  • Nintendo World Store
  • Universal City Studios, Inc. v. Nintendo Co., Ltd.

[edit] NotesEdit

  1. ^ 34°59′30.03″N 135°45′58.66″E / 34.991675°N 135.7662944°E / 34.991675; 135.7662944
  2. ^ 34°58′29.00″N 135°46′10.48″E / 34.97472°N 135.7695778°E / 34.97472; 135.7695778
  3. ^ 34°58′11.89″N 135°45′22.33″E / 34.9699694°N 135.7562028°E / 34.9699694; 135.7562028
  4. ^ a b There were a total of five different consoles in the Color TV Game series which spanned from 1977 to 1980.
  5. ^ For distribution purposes, Europe and Australia were divided into two regions by Nintendo. The first of these regions consisted of France, the Netherlands, West Germany, Norway, Denmark and Sweden and saw the NES released during 1986. The console was released in the second region, consisting of the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland and Italy, as well as Australia and New Zealand, the following year.
  6. ^ According to Stephen Kent's The Ultimate History of Video Games, the official launch date was September 9. Newspaper and magazine articles from late 1991 report that the first shipments were in stores in some regions on August 23, while it arrived in other regions at a later date. Many modern online sources (circa 2005 and later) report August 13.

[edit] ReferencesEdit

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[edit] Further readingEdit

  • Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4.
  • Sloan, Daniel (2011). Playing to Wiin: Nintendo and the Video Game Industrys Greatest Comeback. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-470-82512-9.

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